Largest Fish in SF Bay

Q: What is the largest species of fish you could find in San Francisco Bay?

A: Let’s limit ourselves to the true bony fish, which would leave out any great white sharks that might wander into the Bay looking for harbor seals. (Like all sharks and rays, the great white’s skeleton is cartilage rather than bone.) Among the Bay’s bony fish, the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) takes the prize.

When Stafford Lake near Novato was drained for repairs in 1985, a seven-foot sturgeon was found that weighed 170 lbs and was 75 years old. Rumors of a giant fish lurking the depths of Stafford were rampant for years for once, a monster tale was true. But that fish was not so big by sturgeon standards. The West Coast record was taken long ago from the Frasier River in British Columbia-1,800 pounds and 20 feet long!

Sturgeon are the most primitive of the bony fishes, little changed from the age of dinosaurs. Instead of scales, they have overlapping bony plates called “scutes.” As adults, they are blind and toothless. With a specialized sucking tube and highly sensitive barbels (whiskers), they cruise along the bottom feeding on anything remotely edible [[plant or animal?]]. They are also among the world’s longest-lived fish, sometimes living over 100 years. Not surprisingly, they reproduce late in life-females don’t spawn until age 18.

During their long lives, these fish can build up a high level of contaminants from polluted waters, so San Francisco Bay fishers should eat no more than two meals per month of sturgeon.

Better yet, let those wonderful fish live out their long lives unhooked.

Michael Ellis – Ask the Naturalist – Bay Nature Magazine

Banana Slug Slime

Q – Why are banana slugs so slimy?

A – Back when I used to teach children about nature, I often relied on
a “hook” to keep them focused. Slapping myself with stinging nettle was a great attention grabber but banana slugs worked just as well and didn’t hurt as much. I’d find one and ask the kids “How do you really know it’s a banana slug? It could be a raspberry slug, or even a peach slug. There is only one way to find out for sure.” They would scream as I carefully licked the entire body of the slug. Rolling my eyes upward as if I were tasting a fine wine, I would announce, “Yep, that’s a banana slug.”

If I licked too hard and got some of the slug’s slime on my tongue I
would experience directly one of the many benefits of being
slimy-protection from predators. The slime is not only difficult wipe
off and unpalatable to eat, it also contains an anaesthetic that can
numb the slug nibbler. Not all predators are deterred: shrews love to
eat banana slugs and raccoons will roll slugs around in the dirt to
help get them down the hatch.

The slime of these ancient animals is a truly amazing and useful
substance. It allows the slugs to retain moisture and is especially
important when they aestivate-become dormant-during the dry summer months. They can roll up into a smaller mass with a protective slime shield and wait comfortably for the next fog or rain. The slime also helps slugs get where they need to go, whether that’s squeezing in to a tight space or sliding across the forest floor. They use the slime to adhere to steep surfaces and can even hang upside down from slime threads.

Slime is also an important part of the slugs’ mating process, as the
slow-moving creatures follow mucous trails in order to find each other and consummate their hermaphroditic sexual bliss. They often eat each others’ slime during courtship and then wrap themselves up in a nuptial bed of slime during the actual reproductive act.

Slug slime was originally thought to behave like a bowl of
spaghetti-the more tangled the strands, the thicker the mucus. But
researchers studying the chemistry of slug slime at the University of
Washington (where else?) have found that it is it is a highly-organized
polymeric material which can absorb water extremely rapidly-up to 100 times its initial volume! Once the mechanisms and molecules of slug slime are better understood, researchers foresee numerous potential applications in materials science and bioengineering, such as pollutant traps for sewage treatment plants, effective water-based lubricants, and better surgical implants and wound coverings. Hurray for the slugs!

Michael Ellis – Ask the Naturalist – Bay Nature Magazine